10th March to 16th March is the World Glaucoma Week. The point of the week is to bring awareness to light about glaucoma and inspire individuals to have periodic eye checkups to wipe out blindness caused because of glaucoma.
Glaucoma is one of the main reasons of blindness across the globe. As per a recent report, glaucoma influences in excess of 70 million individuals around the world. In 2015, there were 57.5 million individuals globally with primary open-angle glaucoma, a kind of glaucoma, and it was relied upon to increment to 65.5 million individuals by 2020.
In India, glaucoma is the main reason of irreversible blindness with something like 12 million individuals influenced and about 1.2 million individuals visually impaired from the disease. Thus, this world glaucoma week, we should become familiar with somewhat about what is glaucoma, the hazardous factors and symptoms of glaucoma and which is the right time to go to an ophthalmologist.
What Is Glaucoma?
Glaucoma is a set of cumulative optic nerve condition that can prompt serious vision issues and blindness. It can harm the optic nerve, which is known to intervene visual data to the brain from the eyes.
It is for the most part caused because of an escalation in the eye pressure, which after some time might extremely harm the optic nerves and may prompt perpetual blindness. Whenever identified early, you can arrest the loss of vision and defer the harm caused to the nerves.
Some Of The Common Types Of Glaucoma Are Discussed Below:
Open-Angle Glaucoma: It is the most wide recognized kind of glaucoma. Otherwise called chronic glaucoma, it generally gives no hints or symptoms yet purposes a moderate loss of vision. In this, there is no physical aberration from the norm in the drainage structure, however the fluid decays which results to stream properly into the cornea which impacts the optic nerves.
Angle-Closure Glaucoma: In such condition, the area between the cornea and iris that makes the fluid to drain winds up narrower. This causes an unexpected development in the eye pressure, influencing the nerves. It is for the most part found in individuals with cataracts and farsightedness.
Congenital Glaucoma: As the name recommends, this is a kind of glaucoma that already has existed since birth. Kids born in this state have a deformity in the eye, which influences the normal fluid drainage subsequently creating pressure in the eye. This condition as a rule keeps running in families.
Secondary Glaucoma: Usually, a symptom of damage or injury caused to the eye. This could likewise be because of cataracts, specific medications, for example, corticosteroids, irritation and inflammation in and around the eyes, a tumor of the eyes, or conditions, for example, pigment dispersion.
What Causes Glaucoma?
The eye creates a fluid known as ‘Aqueous Humour‘ which keeps the eye wet. This fluid leaves the eye through openings in the cornea and the iris. Be that as it may, any harm or blockage of these openings can accelerate the pressure in the eyes, which is referred as as intraocular pressure. This acceleration in the eye pressure can harm the optic nerve, which thusly can influence the vision, notwithstanding prompting blindness.
The definite reason for an acceleration in eye pressure isn’t known. However, it is trusted that few factors can accelerate the pressure in the eyes, which incorporate hypertension, diabetes, high blood pressure, poor blood flow to the optic nerve, drugs, for example, corticosteroids, blocked seepage in the eyes and utilization of dilating eye drops.
Are You At Hazard Factors Of Glaucoma?
There are a few factors that can expand your danger of glaucoma. The hazard factors for glaucoma include:
Age: The danger of glaucoma increments with age. Individuals more than 60 years are known to be at higher chances of this condition.
Race & Ethnicity: For individuals with African-American origination, the hazard starts at the age 40 years. Individuals of Asian origination are at a higher danger of experiencing angle-closure glaucoma.
Family History: In the event that you have a family ancestry of glaucoma, at that point you are in higher danger of experiencing the condition as specific kinds of glaucoma keep running in families.
Diabetes Mellitus: Individuals experiencing diabetes or those with a family ancestry of diabetes are at a high hazard as unchecked blood glucose level might cause nerve injury.
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Glaucoma?
Numerous patients with glaucoma are asymptomatic and don’t realize they have the ailment. More than 90 percent of these cases stay undiscovered because of the absence of symptoms of glaucoma. Notwithstanding, there are few signs and symptoms of glaucoma that ought not to be disregarded. These include:
Halos Around Light: When the pressure on the nerves ascents rapidly because of closed angle glaucoma, the cornea winds up waterlogged which can influence the vision prompting coronas around lights.
Pain In The Eyes: It is for the most part observed when there is an unexpected development of pressure. It doesn’t go about as one of the characteristic attributes/symptoms of glaucoma when the ascent in pressure is continuous and not abrupt.
Tunnel Vision: It is one of the usual symptoms of glaucoma. Now in this case, the pressure on the nerves can harm the retinal nerve filaments which can prompt a characteristic pattern of vision loss. This prompts towards tunnel vision in which the peripheral vision gets blocked.
For instance, when seeing a photograph, you will be unable to see the peripheral picture, however can see the middle bit of the image with clarity. This can be observed while receiving testing of the eyes.
Changes In The Optic Disc: The ascent in intraocular pressure can prompt a biconcave, a pale optic disc which goes about as the vital symptoms of glaucoma.
Enlargement Of The Eye: In children lower than three years old, growth of the eye because of raising intraocular pressure can happen. It is one of the characteristic symptoms of glaucoma. In grownups, the eye can’t develop remarkable in light of the fact that development has stopped.
When To Consult An Ophthalmologist?
The vast majority with the condition don’t demonstrate any symptoms right off the bat over the span of the disease. Additionally, it can prompt moderate and progressive harm of the optic nerve, which makes it hard to distinguish the condition.
Subsequently, it is encouraging to see an ophthalmologist on the off chance that you are over 40 years old, has a family ancestry of glaucoma or other eye issues, undergo the ill effects of diabetes or have any symptoms of glaucoma. It is advised to attain a complete eye test once at regular intervals to identify any differences in the vision.
The symptomatic tests for the condition incorporate ophthalmoscopy, tonometry and perimetry alongside a physical examination of the eyes and examining eye pressure. In view of your condition and prognosis, the treatment alternatives include the utilization of eye drops, laser therapy treatment, or surgical procedure to back off the loss of vision by bringing down intraocular pressure.