The terms intelligence, data, and information are thrown around pretty loosely in most tech school circles, and this inevitably ends up in peoples confusing and/or conflating them. What follows could be an easy rationalization of how the interconnected terms are completely different from one another, and the way they work simultaneously.
So, let’s dig into it!
Data are facts that are raw, independent, and unarguable. Examples could possibly include the temperature at 14:47 PM on the roof of the San Francisco Hall or the quantity of the sunshine coming back off the Sun consistent with a specific solar telescope.
Information is that the combination of data into a state which will answer an everyday question. Examples could possibly include whether or not a nation encompasses an on top of average GDP, or whether or not a specific plant is native to Golden State.
Intelligence is that the combination of information into a state that tells a story and inform resolutions. Examples could also embody a narrative stating that Iran appears to invade Iraq, which is to maneuver key resources. Or one that claims a political candidate in Northern Golden State appears ready to vote against Cannabis legislation, therefore it would not be a decent time to enter that business.
Intelligence is assistance in decision-making. It’s a tool for creating intelligent predictions regarding the future – based on solid understanding of the present – in order to develop a course of action that improves outcomes.
Information is employed to piece along the required understanding of the globe to form that narrative, and data is what provided the inputs to the information.
Let us say that there’s a combat zone in Canada (well, it’s far-fetched already), and a few troops are on patrol within the central city searching for the resistance’s most infamous militant. Canadian military leaders are anticipating intelligence that may facilitate finding him.
- Data: A man crossed the street at Montegue and DeGaul at 18:08 PM looking suspicious.
- Data: That very same man left, a close-by building carrying a attaché enchained to his hand.
- Data: An anonymous caller known as in and aforesaid the militant is staying within three blocks.
- Information: Encrypted radio traffic has redoubled by the thirty-seventh compared to two hours past.
- Information: A group of locals sympathetic to the rebels has started going away from the area.
- Intelligence: Since this militant likes to use attaché bombs, and this kind of pattern like, another attack are probable to happen over the next few hours, as was seen in past attacks.
- Intelligence: Thus, police ought to be notified and that we ought to get all of our VIPs out of the area straight away.
The data ought to be harvested and assembled into information, however even then you continue to (generally) want a human analyst to shift from information to intelligence.
In this case we’ve a straightforward terrorist act that follows a pattern, but the problem gets a lot harder with events that have less of a pattern and that happen less frequently.
- Data are observations on an individual basis.
- Information is indeed a valuable data collection.
- Intelligence combines information to create a prognostic narrative that permits better decision-making.
- All 3 levels might have errors, and issues compound as they move up the stack.