Nose Bleeding Or Epistaxis Causes And Management

Nose Bleeding Or Epistaxis: Causes And Management

Last Updated: 24th July, 2022

Nose bleeding or epistaxis happens once the nasal canal’s blood vessel bursts. Such blood capillaries and arteries, due to their shallow presence, injure comparatively faster than those existing in any other part of the body (right beneath the mucous membrane of the nostrils).

Dry air is the most frequent cause of nosebleeds. Hot, low-humidity climates or heated indoor air might effectively cause dry air. Both environments induce the nasal membrane (the fragile tissue within your nose) to dry out from being crusty or broken, and then when you stroke or pick or blow your nose, it is more likely to bleed.


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Nose bleeding often referred to as epistaxis. In addition, blood can flow into the stomach and trigger nausea and vomiting. Blood can come out of both nostrils in far more serious cases. Bleeding can rarely occur, therefore, severe low blood pressure tends to occur.

The following may be the most common causes of nose bleeding:

1. Dry nose and nose picking: This is the most common cause of nosebleeds. When the mucous membranes of the nose, dry up and develop cracks, on picking such a surface, lesions occur and start bleeding.

2. Extremities of weather: Change in air pressure, humidity, change of seasons can make tissues inside the nose dry resultingly in cracks and bleeding.


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3. Broken Nose or skull fractures: A sudden impact to the skull, especially, nose, due to some external hard impact may cause a break, thereby resulting in bleeding from the nose.

4. Rhinitis: Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity, particularly due to the entry of allergens, may formulate an adverse condition, where it starts bleeding.

5. Hypertension: Narrowing of arteries results in raising the blood pressure, that may lead to internal bleeding, causing blood to flow out of the nose.

6. Overdose: Consuming substances like alcohol, or drugs beyond their prescribed levels may lead to hemorrhage, resulting in nosebleeds in extreme conditions.

7. Difficulty in blood clotting: Medical conditions like hemophilia or leukemia, where blood has lacked its ability to clot may also lead to heavy nosebleeds in case of even a minor injury.

8. Chronic sinusitis: Inflammation of the sinuses may in addition be a cause of bleeding from the nose.

9. Pregnancy: Hormonal changes and fluctuations in blood pressure during pregnancy may also lead to nose bleeding.

10. Some prescribed blood anticoagulants: Medicine with warfarin or ibuprofen may delay or disrupt blood clotting. In such a case, the precaution should always be taken to avoid an occurrence of any injury to the nasal membrane.


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Nose Bleeding Or Epistaxis Self-Treatment

It can help stop a nosebleed sitting upright, leaning slightly forward and pinching both nostrils shut for 5 to 10 minutes. It may also help to repeat these steps. More first aid tips are mentioned below.

First aid tips to manage a nose bleed or epistaxis conveniently are as follows:

  1. Avoiding clogging of the throat and mouth with blood. This can be done by leaning ahead and bending the head forward. It prevents blood to rush back into the sinuses and throat, averting any case of gagging.
  2. Pinching the nose for some time to let the blood clot. Further, ice packs should be applied to the cheek and surrounding areas so as to provide an instant relief to the capillaries encompassing the area.
  3. Blow away the clots in the nasal cavity, or use a nasal spray to ease any congestion.
  4. After the blood coagulates, the head can be allowed to rest at an elevated angle of 35-40 degrees.
  5. The utmost care must be required to avoid setting any kind of strain on the nasal cavity, like applying pressure while defecating or smoking.
  6. Avoid obtaining any medications, especially the ones that make the blood thinner.

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Nevertheless, it can help diagnose every potential cause for internal injury by consulting a physician after the bleeding ceases. In addition, contact a doctor to receive sufficient advice if the bleeding still continues.

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