Menstrual Hygiene Sanitary Napkins, Tampons, Menstrual Cups And Cloth Pads

Menstrual Hygiene: Sanitary Napkins, Tampons, Menstrual Cups, Cloth Pads

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Last Updated: 15th December, 2020

Menstrual Hygiene: Menstrual hygiene is the fundamental and imperative need of the condition. Studies have explained well that women and girls in India have very little awareness about reproductive tract infections and as well as urinary tract infection (UTI) caused due to ignorance of personal hygiene during menstruation. There are varieties of menstrual hygiene products available in the market like those of Sanitary Napkins, Tampons, Menstrual Cups and Cloth Pads.

Nevertheless, most of the women prefer to use sanitary napkins, especially the ones who live in the urban areas. In rural areas, reusable cloth pads (made from worn-out clothes or saris) are however customarily used.

Therefore, let’s help ourselves to acknowledge better about different menstrual hygiene products and decide the ones suiting your needs.


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Menstrual Hygiene 1: Sanitary Napkins

Sanitary napkins are the most commonly used menstrual hygiene products during menstruation (among women who use menstrual hygiene products).

How to use: All you have to manage is stick the pad in your panty using the sticky strip present on the back of a pad.

How often to change: You need to change your pads at periodic intervals depending upon your flow. In most cases, it is advised to change at least every 3-4 hours to prevent infection and itching as menstrual blood can act as a growth medium for microbes.


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Nowadays, sanitary napkins made from jute, banana fiber, water hyacinth, and wool are equally available, which are eco-friendly.

  • It is effortless to use.
  • It is universally obtainable.


It can cause continual friction, which might increase the chance of vagina irritation leading to redness and itchy skin.


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Currently, there are scented products available, but select these with care as they might alter the pH and can lead to an allergic skin reaction. Furthermore, the cotton utilized might not be 100% natural.

  • They are non-reusable.
  • Sanitary napkins are not environment-friendly because they are non-biodegradable in nature and thus, linger in the environment for long.

Where To Buy: These products are commercially available at local stores, chemist shops, and online stores.


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Menstrual Hygiene 2: Tampons

It is frequently practiced in the Western countries. However, in recent times, women are open to utilizing it. It is gaining popularity among swimmers and athletes.

How to use: A tampon is a small cotton plug with a string, which is inserted into the vagina. Once inside, it expands like a flower to absorb menstrual blood. The string helps you to pull out the tampon.

How often to change: It is advised to change tampons every few hours (ideally every 5-6 hours). This is because it can increase the risk of infection as they absorbent contains chemicals.


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  • Tampons with varying levels of absorbance are available, allowing you to pick as per your blood flow (light to heavy).
  • Reusable tampons made from organic materials like bamboo, wool, hemp, and cotton are equally available in India.
  • They are flexible to carry around due to their compact size (not bigger than the index finger) and fits in your pocket.
  • They do not bulge under clothing.
  • They are odorless.

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As tampons need to be inserted into the vagina, there is a fear of pores in the hymen or its breakage in adolescent girls.

  • They are not advised to use during the night time as it needs to be changed every few hours.
  • If you leave it inside the vagina for more than eight hours, it might increase the risk of toxic shock syndrome, which could be fatal.
  • Tampons not only absorb menstrual blood, but also absorb vaginal fluids and bacteria, which can increase the risk of irritation and possible infection.
  • They are expensive and not easily degradable in nature, hence not eco-friendly.
  • The use of scented menstrual hygiene products is not recommended as it can irritate the skin and increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer.

Where To Buy: You should get tampons easily on any online stores.

Menstrual Hygiene 3: Menstrual Cups

These are other common alternatives to sanitary pads and tampons, which needs to be inserted into the vagina.

How to use: Menstrual cups are soft, bell-like cups which are made from medical grade silicone rubber. This makes it easy to fold the cup and insert it into the vagina to collect blood. The cup is folded at its mouth and inserted into the vagina until the stem of the cup is barely half an inch inside the vagina. It is then rotated to position it properly.

To remove the cup, you have to pinch the base of the cup and pull it out slowly.

How often to change: Menstrual cups can be worn for up to 6-12 hours depending on the menstrual blood flow. All you have to execute is removing the cup, empty the content, wash with soap and hot water, clean and insert it again.


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As it is worn internally, there is no external discomfort and thus, preferred by sportswomen.

  • You can wear the cup overnight as it does not cause leaking or spilling.
  • They are environment-friendly and reusable.
  • They are precisely maintenance free.
  • They are cost-effective as they can last for at least a year.

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Just like tampons, inserting a menstrual cup can also rupture the hymen. Hence, parents need to discuss with their gynecologist before using this product for their adolescent daughters.

  • Do not use a menstrual cup if you suffer from a yeast infection (also known as candidal vulvovaginitis and vaginal thrush) as it might worsen the condition.
  • It is a strict no-no for women who have experienced toxic shock syndrome (TSS).
  • There is a lack of awareness on how to use menstrual cups.
  • It is not a feasible option in areas where there is a lack of proper water supply and menstrual hygiene conditions.

Where To Buy: There are different types of menstrual cups which are commercially available online.


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Menstrual Hygiene 4: Cloth Pads

Cloth pads have been used since long time now, but due to the advent and advancement of sanitary napkins, these were put on a back burner. As sanitary pads and tampons are expensive and not eco-friendly in nature, most women are open to using reusable cloth pads.

How to use: The modern reusable cloth pads are similar to sanitary napkins in use. They include wings with pins or buttons which help secure the pad.

How often to change: Just like sanitary napkins, you need to change cloth pads every five to six hours.


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Cloth pads are made from cotton and lack chemicals, which reduces the risk of skin irritation and rashes.

  • They are reusable and eco-friendly.
  • They are commercially available.
  • They are cost-effective as you can buy a pack of 6-10 pads which might be sufficient for a year.

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You have to wash cloth pads under running tap water to drain out blood, which is not consistently a feasible option.

  • These pads need to be hygienically washed with use of disinfectant to sterilize it, which could be a daunting task.
  • They have to be dried properly under the sun, which is not a feasible option in rains and winter.
  • You may have to carry a soiled cloth pad in your bag when traveling or at work.
  • They have to be stored properly like a cool and arid place to prevent contamination.

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Where To Buy: Numerous organizations are marketing reusable cloth pads, so look online to get one. You can also purchase these from e-commerce sites.

In addition to these, there are period sponges and period panties available as menstrual hygiene products. However, it is sensible to discuss with your gynecologist before you select these products during periods.

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