Around the world, Meningitis is one of the significant reasons for high dysphoria and mortality in kids beneath five years old. In the pediatric populace, it represents around 180,000 demises yearly. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were accounted for to be the commonest reasons for bacterial meningitis crosswise over various parts of the globe.
Researches from India have ascribed pneumonia and meningitis as the main sources of demises among kids underneath five years old. Together, both of these diseases record to around 22% of demises that happen to children.
24th April is seen as World Meningitis Day perpetually. The motto for 2019 is “#AfterMeningitis” with the intent to bring issues to light about the condition.
This world meningitis day, we should know a little bit about this fatal disease along with its types, causes, symptoms, and its preventions.
What Is Meningitis And What Are The Causes?
Meningitis is a conceivably deadly inflammation of the meninges, which is a very thin membrane that layers our brains and our spinal cords. It can happen when the liquid present in the space between the layers of the brain become contaminated.
The actual causes of meningitis might be comprehended delegated contagious (bacterial, parasitic/fungal, viral) and noncontagious.
Viral and bacterial contaminations are the most wide recognized reasons for contagious meningitis while medical issues, for example, malignant cancer or head injury has a place with the non-contagious reasons for inflammation in the brain. Let’s discuss more on the types of meningitis:
Viral Meningitis: It is the most well-known type of meningitis and records for 85 percent of the cases with a rate of 10.9 per 100,000 individuals. The general causative contaminations incorporate enteroviruses (particularly the Coxsackie virus).
The different other contaminants that can cause this condition incorporate influenza virus, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the mumps virus.
Bacterial Meningitis: The immediate common type of meningitis is bacterial meningitis, which happens in around three for every 100,000 individuals on a yearly basis. The pathogens that reason this type of meningitis incorporates Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus), Listeria monocytogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus.
The pathogens that cause tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, can likewise cause the inflammation of the meninges too.
Neisseria meningitidis is the main source of meningitis worldwide and a feared disease in many nations. Meningococcal meningitis most normally influence people from 3 years old to juvenility. It infrequently happens in people older than 50 years.
In developing nations, the death rate from bacterial meningitis is frequently higher (20– 40%) than in developed nations. The disease develops more in guys than in females.
Fungal Meningitis: It is moderately unusual and more often than not results in perpetual meningitis. As the name proposes, it is brought about by a fungus which contaminates the body and spreads through the blood to the spinal cord and brain.
Cryptococcal meningitis is a typical contagious type of the ailment. It influences individuals with immunodeficiencies, for example, the AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) or malignant cancer.
Parasitic Meningitis: It is significantly uncommon when contrasted with viral and bacterial meningitis and generally promoted by parasites present in soil, dung, poultry or grains. The contamination is caused when the eggs of the parasite are ingested and not through simple coughing or contacting an individual with the condition.
Amoebic meningitis, which is a type of parasitic meningitis is a standout amongst the most hazardous diseases. It is normally caused when an Ameba (a microscopic parasite not noticeable by naked eyes) enters the body with inward breath of polluted water from rivers and lakes.
Noninfectious Meningitis: It is fundamentally not a contamination, but rather a reaction or intricacy of a hidden medical issue. The conditions that can prompt an inflammation of the cerebrum/brain tissue incorporates systemic lupus erythematosus, drug instigated, head injury, brain surgical procedure, and malignant cancer related issues.
Parasitic, fungal and non-contagious meningitis isn’t infectious, yet viral and bacterial meningitis are exceedingly infectious. It can spread through contact with an individual experiencing the condition through droplets of contaminated fluid by means of sniffling and coughing.
What Are The Common Symptoms Of Meningitis?
Aplenty 2/3rd of instances of meningitis happen in newborn children and for the most part in the initial 2 years of life. This could be because of diminished immunity and high vascularity of the cerebrum or brain, which puts children at high danger of contamination.
Besides, the symptoms of meningitis are likewise ambiguous because of the juvenility of the central nervous system (CNS) in babies and kids.
This is the cause behind why specialists for the most part rely upon the diagnosis depends on blood cultures and Cerebrospinal fluid (or CSF, which is exists in the meninges) instead of the symptoms.
In any case, there are certain signs and symptoms which can help speculate meningitis and help in the diagnosis of the condition.
- Consistent fever for more than a week
- Neck stiffness
- Nausea and vomiting
- Altered or diminished level of awareness
How Meningitis Can Be Treated?
The treatment strictly depends on the reason for meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is treated with antibiotics while in some cases it might require quick hospitalization. This may anticipate cerebrum or brain damage and demise.
Fungal meningitis may require the utilization of antifungal prescriptions to treat the condition. Viral meningitis may resolve without anyone else yet to know the reason and the correct treatment you may need to consult a doctor. Parasitic meningitis can be dealt with the dependents on the symptoms.
Unattended bacterial meningitis is exceedingly deadly, causing genuine neurological complications. Early difficulties of bacterial meningitis incorporate seizures, expanded intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus, and cerebral thrombosis.
It might result in brain or cerebrum damage, learning incapacity or a hearing loss in 10– 20% of survivors, furthermore amputations in some of the severe cases.
Specific types of meningitis can be averted with immunization. The vaccines that can avert the disease are Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine, meningococcal vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine.
From the year 2012 onwards, the Government of India has implemented the Pentavalent Vaccine (DPT+Hep B + Hib) within it’s Universal Immunization Program (UIP) over the nation.